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Climate and Weather in Bangladesh

(R. Ahmed)


Although winter, spring, summer, rainy and autumn are the standard seasons in Bangladesh, summer and rainy (commonly called as monsoon) seasons significantly dominate the environment and agricultural characteristics. Country’s entire cultural, economic and agricultural patterns are neatly synchronized with the rotation of climate components throughout the year. But parallel to global climatic instability (as part of El Nino and La Nino influence) there has been traces of significant fluctuation in prolongation of the seasons, in intensity of the phenomena and in fluctuations in the peaks of the seasons. It is a scientific fact that environmental and ecosystem adjustments are usually slower than sudden climate fluctuation, normally causes natural disasters.


The summer (during March to middle of June) is characterized by high temperature (between about 30° to 40° C depending on geographical locations) with dry air. Due to slight prolongation of summer, increase in temperature (may be as part of global warming), or shifting of the summer peak cause serious drought situation. It is gradually becoming more impacting due to increasing intensity of land use and man-environment interaction causing agricultural insecurity. To match with the need of HYV (high yield variety) crop breeds increasing use of ground water irrigation is giving a kick-back as arsenic contamination – a new environment threat to Bangladesh.


Coastal belt of Bangladesh is most vulnerable to hydro-meteorological disasters due to a number of hydro-geographic and geological features like geographical location, flat deltaic topography with sea-facing low elevation, extreme tropical climate variability, unstable tropical atmospheric condition and regional setting. The hydro-meteorological disasters which usually occur in Bangladesh include flood, drought, tropical cyclone and storm surge, untimely rainfall, riverbank erosion, landslide, storm, salinity intrusion, tornado and sea level change etc. The real development is not possible without mainstreaming disaster risks reduction programmes in the development process. That is why, to successfully live with disaster and to develop disaster risks reduction initiatives, priority emphasis must be given to disaster related education as an essential part of long-term disaster mitigation and management strategies. Disaster education can make the people at risks informed of how to save own life, family, property and environment from the deadly impact of hydro-meteorological disasters.


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